- Brand Name: Bactrim;
- Active Ingredient: Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim;
- Manufacturer: Roche.
Bactrim and its drug substances Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim
The antibacterial drug Bactrim contains two main active substances:
- Sulfamethoxazole 800 mg (class of sulfonamides);
- Trimethoprim 160 mg (class of antifolates).
These two ingredients have a synergistic effect, that is, they work together and complement each other.
- Sulfamethoxazole prevents the formation of folic acid in microorganisms, which leads to a bacteriostatic effect (bacteria stop growing and dividing);
- Trimethoprim interferes with the biosynthesis of proteins and nucleic acids in microorganisms, which leads to bactericidal activity (bacteria die).
One dose of Bactrim works for about 12 hours in most people, with a half-life of 8 to 10 hours. The active ingredients and their metabolites are slowly excreted by the kidneys with the urine within up to 72 hours (Trimethoprim - within up to 24 hours).
Indications for use
Bactrim is prescribed for first- or second-line therapy in the treatment of a number of infections, including:
- Hearing organs (for example, otitis);
- Urinary tract (for example, pyelonephritis, cystitis, or urethritis);
- Several organs and/or body systems (for example, brucellosis);
- Gastrointestinal tract (for example, enteritis or diarrhea);
- Respiratory system (for example, bronchitis or pneumonia).
Treatment regimens and dosages
Dosage regimen for adults and children over 12 years of age:
- Standard dose is a 960 mg tablet;
- Dosing frequency is twice a day at regular intervals.
Dosage for children under 12 years of age is determined depending on body weight. Children weighing 27 kg to 53 kg should take half a tablet of Bactrim (480 mg dose) every 12 hours. With a weight of more than 53 kg, the standard dosage is prescribed.
The treatment duration is at least five days (for example, in the treatment of diarrhea). In the treatment of infections of the urinary tract or respiratory system, the duration of treatment can be extended to 10–14 days.
If necessary, the doctor may adjust the frequency of Bactrim use. Antibiotic treatment regimens vary and depend on the age of the patient, the severity of the disease, contraindications and the function of internal organs.
Recommendations for use
It is important to take Bactrim before or just after meals. If you can't eat, take the tablets with fluids. This will help prevent some gastrointestinal side effects (such as bloating, stomach ache, burning in the digestive tract, etc.).
- Take the pills with a full glass (8 ounces or 200 grams) of water;
- Don't chew or crush the tablets;
- Take the tablets at the same time every day;
- Don't take more than the recommended dose.
Avoid taking double doses or missing doses. If you forget to take your pill at the usual time, take it as soon as possible. If there are several hours left until the next dose, skip this dose and then follow the standard dosage regimen.
Don't take Bactrim if you have or have had:
- Folic acid deficiency;
- Hypersensitivity (allergy) to Sulfamethoxazole or Trimethoprim;
- Pronounced damage or serious liver or kidney disease.
Use of Bactrim during pregnancy
The combination antibiotic Bactrim and each of the active ingredients alone (Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim) should not be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding unless advised otherwise by the doctor.
Possible side effects
The list of some side effects during oral use of Bactrim includes:
- Lower back pain;
- Muscle weakness;
- Acid reflux;
- Joint pain;
- Increased sensitivity to light;
- Increased blood potassium;
- Vaginal fungal infections.
Sometimes Bactrim can cause hypersensitivity reactions (allergies). If you have skin redness, rash or itching, you should consult the doctor for further instructions.
Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim: interaction with other drugs
Inform the doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines:
- Acetazolamide (for the treatment of edema) may increase the therapeutic effect of Bactrim;
- Albiglutide (for diabetes) combined with Bactrim can lead to a significant decrease in blood sugar;
- Bactrim may decrease the metabolism of Alectinib (used for treatment of certain types of cancer);
- Fenoldopam (for the treatment of arterial hypertension) leads to an increase in the level of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in the blood serum.
It is contraindicated to take Bactrim for patients using the antiarrhythmic drug Dofetilid (Dofetilde, Tikosyn).
Store in the original packaging at room temperature.
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